Introduction to Neuroprostheses


Duration: one semester

Prerequisite: Analog linear electronic circuits



The course presents the student with the fundamentals of Neurobiology, in general, and neural models, in specific, and serves as a key for understanding the basics in Neuroprostheses. In addition, several aspects of neural recording and stimulation techniques will be discussed along with their implementation in the devise and production of visual, auditory and motor prostheses.


Course topics:

1. The neuron – structure and function of the cell membrane. Membrane resting and active potential – the Hodgkin-Huxley model. Models of dynamic ion concentration equilibrium in neurons - Nernst equation, Donnan equilibrium and Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation.

2. Neural recording and stimulation. Introduction to basic electrophysiology. Passive models of cell and axon membrane. Modeling signal suppression throughout the axon – the standard cable theory. The Node of Ranvier in axons as a voltage source. Extracellular stimulation – dependency of the stimulation impact on cell geometry and its distance from the stimulating electrode.

3. The muscle – anatomy, physiology and electromechanical coupling. Different muscle types (red, white) and their characteristics (force, fatigue). Muscle innervations characteristics (amplitude, frequency and stimulation time) and their uses.

4. Implantation technologies and major aspects of neuroprostheses development. Different types of stimulating and recording electrodes in the peripheral nervous system – surface, subcutaneous, intramuscular and intraneural electrodes. Electrical and mechanical considerations in choosing an electrode. Recording and stimulation in the central nervous system – non invasive (EEG), partial invasive (ECoG) and invasive – advantages, drawbacks and uses.

5. Cochlear implants – anatomy and physiology, pathologies in the auditory system.

6. Visual neuroprostheses – anatomy, physiology and neural pathways.

7. Motor prostheses for volitional control of movement, FES (functional electrical stimulation), invasive  and non invasive brain machine interface.

8. Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) – medical applications.

9. Future technologies in neuroprostheses.


Course requirements:

Presenting up-to-date scientific works – 20%, final exam – 80%.


Text Books and References:

1. W. H. Kenneth, S. D.  Gurpreet, "Neuroprosthetics: Theory and Practice", University of Utah, USA, 2004.

2. K. Schwartz, J. McGraw-Hill, "Principles of Neural Science", Fourth Edition, NY, 2000.


Log in

Electromagnetic Fields


Duration: one semester

Prerequisite: Mathematics for electrical engineering;  Physics II



- To familiarize the student with the concepts and calculations pertaining to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields. In specific, the objectives are:

- To analyze potential fields due to static charges

- To evaluate static magnetic fields

- To understand how materials affect electric and magnetic fields

- To understand the relation between the fields under time varying situations

- To understand principles of propagation of uniform plane waves


Course topics:

1. Elementary concepts of electromagnetism: vector fields, integration and differentiation of fields. Vector operators: gradient, rotor and divergence. The three main coordinate systems: Cartesian, Cylinder and Spherical.

2. The electrostatic field: Coulomb's law, the strength of the electric field and types of charge distributions: line, surface and volume. Electric flow density, Gauss's law, Poisson and Laplace equations.

3. The electrostatic potential: electric potential, electric dipole and dipole moment.

4. The displacement field, polarization and capacitance.

5. Stokes' theorem. Maxwell equations - integral and differential forms.

6. DC current and current density in conductors. Ohm's and Kirchhoff's laws. Charge conservation law and current continuity equation. Biot-Savart law and the magnetic force acting on a wire. The magnetic force of a finite line conductor, a conducting surface and a current loop.

7. Magnetic moment of a current loop and a conduction coil. Induction and inductors. Scalar and vector magnetic potential.

8. Magnetic materials. Hysteresis loop. Magnetic circuits and their implementation. Changing electric and magnetic fields. Faraday's law.

9. Inducted current in a loop. Self and mutual inductance. The relation between the electromagnetic fields theory and the network theory. Planar waves and their expansion in space.


Course requirements:

Final exam – 100%.


Text Books and References:

1.  Applied electromagnetics (1978). Plonus MA. 2nd edition NY: McGraw Hill.

2.  Electromagnetics with applications (1999). Krauss JD. 5th edition Boston: WCB / McGraw Hill.

3. Elements of engineering electromagnetics (2004). Rao N. 6th upper saddle river NJ: Prentice Hall International.

4. Electromagnetics problems solver (1995). NY research and education association.


Log in

Digital Systems


Duration: one semester

Prerequisite: Logic circuits



To familiarize the student with the principles of computer architecture and the relation between the internal computer architecture and the computer function, in general, and the interfaces between the CPU and the memory / IO devices, in particular.


Course topics:

1. Binary arithmetic. Counting bases, moving from one base to another, types of complements, bit carry and bit overflow, fixed point and floating point representation, error detection codes and error correction codes, binary codes (Gray BCD and ASCII).

2. Digital components and digital logic circuits. Logic gates and Boolean algebra. De Morgan's laws, simplification of Boolean functions by Karnaugh map. "Don't care" conditions. Combinational circuits - implementing combinational functions, half adder, full adder, coder and decoder. Sequential circuits - T, D, JK and SR flip-flops. State transition table and state diagram.

3. Clock controlled sequential circuits - registers with serial load and parallel load, binary counters and RAM. The process of instruction decoding and execution in registers (microoperations). Logic, arithmetic and shift microoperations.

4. Memory - definitions, characteristics and timing wave shapes. The motherboard and the busses. The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) - designing principles and implementation techniques.

5. The Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) - instruction structure and characteristics. Three -, two -, one and no address field instructions. Addressing modes - immediate, direct, indirect, relative and index. Binary and hexadecimal machine language. Assembly language - syntax and instructions.

6. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) - designing the registers, stack and instruction cycle. Executing arithmetic, logic and data transfer instructions with one - ,two and three busses. Devising a basic hard-wired computer and a microprogrammed computer - the control memory, microinstruction and microprogram. The Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) and the Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) - advantages and pitfalls.

7. Memory organization and hierarchy. Spatial and temporal locality of reference. Stack memory, cache memory, virtual memory and Direct Memory Access (DMA).

8. The floating point unit - algorithms for addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of integer and floating point numbers. 

9. Interrupts -  types of interrupts, their priorities and processing.

10. Types of parallel processing - advantages and disadvantages. Devising an arithmetic and instruction pipeline. Data dependency and instruction dependency. Vector and array processors

11. I/O units - types, components and interfaces

12. Cost and efficiency considerations. Computer performance assessment - the benchmark


Course requirements:

Final exam – 100%.


Text Books and References:

1. Computer system architecture (1996). Mano M. 3rd edition Prentice Hall Inc.

2. Computer organization (1996). Hamacher VC. 4th McGraw Hill.

3. Computer organization and design (2001). Patterson D, Hennessy J. Morgan Kaufmann.


Log in

Analog Linear Electronic Circuits


Duration: one semester

Prerequisite: Semi conductor devices



To familiarize the student with the engineering like and physical principles of linear analog electronic circuits, analyze their working operation, devise, electric measurements and performance assessment.

Course topics:

1. Electronic systems and signal processing: Analog signal, transducer, analog processor, principle considerations in systems devise, Laplace transformation and Bode diagram.

2. Linear circuits - Thevenin's theorem and Norton's theorem, superposition and two port systems.

3. Diodes and non linear circuits: PN junction structure, diode I-V equations, diode simplified models for current and voltage computations in resistors and diodes based circuits. I-V curve of Zener diode. Devise of linear passive voltage rectifier using diodes. Using diodes in clamping and clipping circuits.

4. Field effect transistors (FET) - physical structure of NMOS and PMOS transistors. Enhancement and depletion type MOS transistors and the parabolic current formula. Cut-off, linear (ohmic) and saturation working conditions. MOSFET I-V curves. The channel length modulation effect and its influence on the current equation. Biasing configurations and DC operating point calculations. The MOSFET big signal and small signal equivalent circuit. The MOSFET model for high frequency.

5. Bipolar transistors (BJT): physical structure of NPN and PNP transistors. BJT I-V curves. The Early effect and its effect on the current formula. Cut-off, forward active, reverse active and saturation operation modes. Biasing configurations and DC operating point calculations. The BJT big signal and small signal equivalent circuit. The BJT model for high frequency.

6. Transistors frequency response - computing the zeros and poles of the transfer function in low and high frequency. computing fH and fL.

7. The differential amplifier - operating principles and non-ideality problems. The cause for voltage and current offsets.

8. The operational amplifier - small signal equivalent circuit. trans impedance and logarithmic amplifier, voltage follower, integrator and differentiator. Real operational amplifier - power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) and common mode rejection ratio (CMRR).

9. Feedback circuits - operation principles and advantages. Basic feedback circuits.

10. Power amplifiers - the different classes (A, B, AB), advantages and pitfalls.

11. Filters, tuned amplifiers and oscillators.


Course requirements:

Final exam – 100%.


Text Books and References:

1.  Operational Amplifiers with Linear Integrated Circuit (1994). William D Stanley. New York.

2.  Electronic Device and Circuits (2001). Denton J. Daily. Prentice Hall.

3. Operational Amplifiers and Linear Integrated Circuit (2001). Robert F Coughlin and Frederick F Driscoll. Prentice Hall.


Log in

The Hybrid BCI Lab